Author: David Klepper

Comments on the importance of the early-to-reverberant sound-energy ratio, “Clarity,” in speech and music acoustics, related to use of sound-reflecting panels with attention to data in Dr. Leo L. Beranek’s three concert-hall books.

by David Lloyd Klepper Yeshivat Beit Orot, Shmuel ben Adiya 1, Mt. of Olives, Jerusalem 97400, Israel  daveklepper@yahoo.com I. Introduction The first question this paper attempts to answer is “Has the ratio of early to reverberant sound energy largely replaced Reverberation Time as the primary measurable acoustical phenomenon for judging intelligibility of both music and speech?.  This metric is also defined, acoustically, as Clarity (some also use Definition), and 80 milliseconds separates the two regions for music, 50 milliseconds for speech.1  These metrics are abbreviated as C80 and C50.  Other authors find this metric of value for both evaluation...

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The Early-To-Reverberant Sound-Energy Ratio In Concert Hall Acoustics

by David Lloyd Klepper Abstract Some workers in the audio and acoustics profession still are unaware that the metric of the ratio of early-to-reverberant sound energy has largely replaced reverberation time as the primary measurable acoustical phenomenon for judging intelligibility. This metric is also defined, acoustically, as clarity (some also use definition), and 80 ms separates the two regions for music.1 This metric is abbreviated as C80. Other authors find this metric of value for both evaluation measurement and for design.2-10 Data are analyzed, showing C80 is of value and a possible replacement for early-decay time, EDT, six times...

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An Autobiographical Assessment of the Importance of the Early-to-Reverberant Sound-Energy Ratio, “Clarity,” in Speech Acoustics.

by David Lloyd Klepper Yeshivat Beit Orot, Shmuel ben Adiya 1, Mt. of Olives, Jerusalem 97400, Israel daveklepper@yahoo.com I.  Introduction From the first day of my employment with Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., (BBN), 1 May 1957,1 until after my move to Jerusalem 11 July 1996, I worked assisting congregations reconciling the acoustical requirements for speech and music in worship spaces.2 Up until 1952 the reverberation time was considered the most important factor. Then, work by Parkin and Taylor in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, using a delayed, distributed, tapered-line-arrays sound system to increase the direct-to-reverberant ratio, demonstrated the early-to-reverberant...

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History Repeats Itself: Boston’s Hatch Shell, New York City’s Holy Apostles Church, Albert Einstein, Joseph Albo, and Variable Time

by David Lloyd ben Yaacov Yehuda Klepper, student at Yeshivat Beit Orot, Jerusalem, daveklepper@yahoo.com 1.  The Hatch Shell In 1959, the Boston Symphony asked Leo Beranek to do something about the poor sound system at the Hatch Memorial Shell, near the Boston bank of the Charles River in a park area still known as “The Esplanade.” The Shell was and still is used for summer concerts by the Boston Pops Orchestra. In 1959, the famed Arthur Fiedler was the conductor. Figure 1 shows a plan of the area. The previous two systems (one a collection of paging horns in...

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Reinforcing the Rabbi’s voice in Light of a Ban on Sabbath Electronic Reinforcement in Orthodox Synagogues

by David Lloyd ben Yaacov Yehuda Klepper, student at Yeshivat Beit Orot, Jerusalem, daveklepper@yahoo.com Forward by Chris Foreman Designers who consult on acoustics and audio systems in worship spaces understand the importance of achieving audibility and clarity of speech while respecting the beliefs and traditions of each religion. And, while much has been written about this balance in Christian churches, fewer resources are available for designers consulting with other faiths. In this paper, consultant David Klepper provides a valuable addition to the literature by examining methods of achieving audibility and clarity of speech in Orthodox Jewish synagogues while respecting...

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